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It may be used to refer to physical or mental attributes that some institutions, particularly medicine, view as needing to be fixed (the medical model).
It may refer to limitations imposed on people by the constraints of an ableist society (the social model).
Quetelet postulated that one could take the sum of all people's attributes in a given population (such as their height or weight) and find their average, and that this figure should serve as a norm toward which all should aspire.
This idea of a statistical norm threads through the rapid take up of statistics gathering by Britain, United States, and the Western European states during this time period, and it is tied to the rise of eugenics.
Disability is an impairment that may be cognitive, developmental, intellectual, mental, physical, sensory, or some combination of these.
It substantially affects a person's life activities and may be present from birth or occur during a person's lifetime.
In the early 1970s, disability activists began to challenge how society treated disabled people and the medical approach to disability.
Due to this work, physical barriers to access were identified.
Various metrics for assessing a person's genetic fitness, which were then used to deport, sterilize, or institutionalize those deemed unfit.
At the end of the Second World War, with the example of Nazi eugenics, eugenics faded from public discourse, and increasingly disability cohered into a set of attributes that medicine could attend to – whether through augmentation, rehabilitation, or treatment.
In both contemporary and modern history, disability was often viewed as a by-product of incest between first-degree relatives or second-degree relatives.
Disabilities is an umbrella term, covering impairments, activity limitations, and participation restrictions.
An impairment is a problem in body function or structure; an activity limitation is a difficulty encountered by an individual in executing a task or action; while a participation restriction is a problem experienced by an individual in involvement in life situations. It is a complex phenomenon, reflecting the interaction between features of a person’s body and features of the society in which he or she lives.
Disability, as well as other concepts including: abnormal, non-normal, and normalcy came from this.